Selected woman’s characteristics
Breastfeeding Status:
Time Selected: Between 0 hours and 12 months
Method Selected: Progestogen-Only Implants
Note: Some methods are unavailable for specific time ranges

Description

Small, flexible rods or capsules placed under the skin of the upper arm; contains progestogen hormone only

How it works

Thickens cervical mucous to block sperm and egg from meeting and prevents ovulation

Effectiveness to prevent pregnancy

>99%

 

Comments

Implants: Health-care provider must insert and remove; can be used for 3–5 years depending on implant; irregular vaginal bleeding common but not harmful

Conditions / Subconditions

Breastfeeding Status:

No breastfeeding status was selected using the "Women’s characteristics" filters.

Breastfeeding Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) < 6 weeks postpartum 2
b) ≥ 6 weeks to < 6 months postpartum (primarily breastfeeding) 1
c) ≥ 6 months postpartum 1
Non-breastfeeding Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) < 21 days 1
b) ≥ 21 days 1

Medical Condition:

No medical conditions were selected using the "Women’s characteristics" filters.

Cardiovascular disease Category Clarifications/Special
considerations
I C
Current and history of ischaemic heart disease 2 3
Stroke 2 3
Diabetes Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) History of gestational disease 1
b) Non-vascular disease
i) non-insulin dependent 2
ii) insulin dependent 2
c) Nephropathy/retinopathy/neuropathy 2
d) Other vascular disease or diabetes of > 20 years’ duration 2
Headaches Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
I C
a) Non-migrainous
(mild or severe)
1 1 Clarification: Classification depends on accurate diagnosis of those severe headaches that are migrainous and those that are not. Any new headaches or marked changes in headaches should be evaluated. Classification is for women without any other risk factors for stroke. Risk of stroke increases with age, hypertension and smoking.
b) Migraine
i) without
aura
age < 35 years 2 2
age > 35 years 2 2
ii) with
aura, at any age
2 3
HIV WHO Stage 3 or 4 Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
Severe or advanced HIV clinical disease (WHO stage 3 or 4) 1 Clarification: Because there may be drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and ARV therapy, refer to Drug Interactions.
Hypertension Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) History of hypertension, where blood pressure CANNOT be
evaluated (including hypertension in pregnancy)
2 Clarification: It is desirable to have blood pressure measurements taken before initiation of POC,use.
Read More
b) Adequately controlled hypertension, where blood pressure
CAN be evaluated
1
c) Elevated blood pressure levels (properly taken
measurements)
i) systolic 140-159 or diastolic 90-99 mm Hg 1
ii) systolic ≥ 160 or diastolic ≥ 100 mm Hg 2
d) Vascular disease 2

Hypertension

  • Clarification: It is desirable to have blood pressure measurements taken before initiation of POC use. However, in some settings blood pressure measurements are unavailable. In many of these settings, pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality risks are high, and POCs are among the few types of methods widely available. In such settings, women should not be denied the use of POCs simply because their blood pressure cannot be measured.
  • Clarification: Women adequately treated for hypertension are at reduced risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke as compared with untreated women. Although there are no data, POC users with adequately controlled and monitored hypertension should be at reduced risk of acute MI and stroke compared with untreated hypertensive POC users.
Obesity Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) > 30 kg/m2 BMI
b) Menarche to < 18 years and ≥30 kg/m2 BMI
Pelvic infection Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
Current purulent cervicitis or chlamydial infection or gonorrhoea/Pelvic inflammatory disease/Sepsis 1
Tuberculosis Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) Non-pelvic 1 Clarification: For all categories of hypertension, classifications are based on the assumption that no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease exist.
b) Pelvic 1
Venous thromboembolism Category     Clarifications/Special considerations
a) History of DVT/PE 2
b) Acute DVT/PE 3
c) DVT/PE and established on anticoagulant therapy 2
d) Family history (first-degree relatives) 1

Drug Interactions:

No drug interactions were selected using the "Women’s characteristics" filters.

Anticonvulsants Category Clarifications/Special considerations
a) Certain anticonvulsants,(phenytoin, carbamazepine, barbiturates, primidone,
topiramate, oxcarbazepine)
2 Clarification: Although the interaction of certain anticonvulsants with LNG/ETG implants is not harmful to women, it is likely to reduce the effectiveness of LNG/ETG implants. Use of other contraceptives should be encouraged for women who are long-term users of any of these drugs.
b) Lamotrigine 1
Antimicrobial Therapy Category Clarifications/Special considerations
a) Broad-spectrum antibiotics 1
b) Antifungals 1
c) Antiparasitics 1
Antiretroviral Therapy Category Clarifications/Special
considerations
a) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) Clarification: Antiretroviral drugs have the potential to either decrease or increase the levels of steroid hormones in women using hormonal contraceptives. Pharmacokinetic data suggest potential drug interactions between some antiretroviral drugs,(particularly some NNRTIs and ritonavir-boosted PIs) and some hormonal contraceptives. These interactions may reduce the effectiveness of the hormonal contraceptive.
Abacavir (ABC) 1
Tenofovir (TDF) 1
Zidovudine (AZT) 1
Lamivudine (3TC) 1
Didanosine (DDI) 1
Emtricitabine (FTC) 1
Stavudine (D4T) 1
b) Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Efavirenz (EFV) 2
Etravirine (ETR) 1
Nevirapine (NVP) 2
Rilpivirine (RPV) 1
c) Protease inhibitors (PIs)
Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) 2
Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) 2
Ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) 2
Ritonavir (RTV) 2
d) Integrase inhibitors
Raltegravir (RAL) 1

Other:

No other conditions were selected using the "Women’s characteristics" filters.

Adolescents Category Clarifications/Special considerations
Adolescents 1 Special consideration: Adolescents, In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices.Read More

Adolescents

    Special consideration: In general, adolescents are eligible to use any method of contraception and must have access to a variety of contraceptive choices. Age alone does not constitute a medical reason for denying any method to adolescents.

    While some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of certain contraceptive methods in adolescents (e.g. the use of progestogen-only injectables by those below 18 years), these concerns must be balanced against the advantages of avoiding pregnancy. It is clear that many of the same eligibility criteria that apply to older clients apply to young people. However, some conditions (e.g. cardiovascular disorders) that may limit use of some methods in older women do not generally affect young people since these conditions are rare in this age group. Social and behavioural issues should be important considerations in the choice of contraceptive methods by adolescents.

    For example, in some settings, adolescents are also at increased risk for STIs, including HIV. While adolescents may choose to use any one of the contraceptive methods available in their communities, in some cases, using methods that do not require a daily regimen may be more appropriate. Adolescents, married or unmarried, have also been shown to be less tolerant of side-effects and therefore have high discontinuation rates. Method choice may also be influenced by factors such as sporadic patterns of intercourse and the need to conceal sexual activity and contraceptive use.

    For instance, sexually active adolescents who are unmarried have very different needs from those who are married and want to postpone, space or limit pregnancy. Expanding the number of method choices offered can lead to improved satisfaction, increased acceptance and increased prevalence of contraceptive use. Proper education and counselling both before and at the time of method selection can help adolescents address their specific problems and make informed and voluntary decisions. Every effort should be made to prevent service and method cost from limiting the options available.
Smoking Category Clarifications/Special considerations
a) Age < 35 years 1
b) Age > 35 years
i) < 15 cigarettes/day 1
i) < 15 cigarettes/day 1
Note: Some methods are unavailable for specific time ranges